Human Physiology - Functional Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System (Updated)

in this video in this video anatomy of

the male reproductive system let's begin

by simply identifying structures that

are important in the male reproductive

system these include the vas deferens

also called the ductus deferens the

penis the testes note that only one

testicle is shown in this diagram the

scrotum the Bubble urethral gland the

prostate gland and finally the seminal

vesicle you have to have a basic

understanding of location in order to

understand function and how all these

structures work together we will begin

with the testes the male gonad this is a

diagram of the longitudinal section

through one testicle so you can now see

what's inside notice that the majority

of the testicle is composed of

seminary's tubules these tubules produce

sperm via spermatogenesis

but how let's take a closer look in

order to do this we need to zoom in on

the seminars to Buell and take a

cross-section through the tube you'll

imagine taking a garden hose and cutting

it in half this would be similar to

cutting the tubulin half and looking at

what's inside the lumen of the

seminiferous tubules

is lined by cells called sertoli cells

these sertoli cells are connected via

tight junctions lining the outside of

the sertoli cells is a layer of smooth

muscle outside of the sertoli cells are

the Leydig cells these are all the cells

that are really important in addition to

these structures you will need to be

familiar with the following compartments

the basal compartment and the luminal

compartment these compartments are

basically talking about regions of the

cross section if we are talking about

the basal compartment we are talking

about the area that goes from the tight

Junction toward that smooth muscle and

if we are talking about the luminal

compartment we are talking about the

area that goes from

tight Junction toward the lumen now that

you are familiar with the structures

let's focus on their functions we begin

with the latex cells also called

interstitial cells the latex cells

secrete testosterone the sertoli cells

support sperm development or what is

referred to as spermatogenesis the

smooth muscle surrounding the sertoli

cells allows for peristalsis this

process is important as it will propel

sperm through the seminarist tubules

well that's all fine and dandy that the

sertoli cells produce the sperm but how

do the sperm get out of the seminary's

tubules and out of the testes this is

our next goal so here are the sperm in

the seminarist tubules the sperm has

been produced by the sertoli cells and

released into the lumen of the

seminiferous tubules those sperm then

travel through this little region here

called their re T testes and into the

efferent duct jewels this is the point

at which the sperm exit the test seized

from the efferent duct jewels the sperm

enter the epididymis and will ultimately

make their way to the vas deferens so

that is the pathway the sperm are taking

to get out of the testes what propel the

sperm through all those structures

peristalsis now the sperm are in the vas

deferens right the vas deferens connects

with the seminal vesicles to form the

ejaculatory duct at this point the sperm

is mixed with fluid

that came from the seminal vesicles the

ejaculatory duct penetrates through the

prostate gland to join the urethra as

such the sperm wind up in the urethra

which receives substances from the

Bulbul urethral glands thus both urine

and sperm are in the urethra so that was

just the pathway that sperm take from

the seminar force tubules to the urethra

now let's look more closely at the

accessory glands I mentioned earlier the

seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline

fluid that can

Cheng's fructose enzymes and

prostaglandins remember alkaline fluids

are basic the purpose of this alkaline

fluid is to neutralize the acid that is

in the female reproductive tract the

fructose is used for energy

remember sperm have to swim so they need

energy for motility the enzymes in the

fluid facilitate semen clotting

there are also prostaglandins in this

fluid these are for motility and

viability of the sperm the prostate

gland is another accessory gland the

prostate gland secretes citrate which is

an energy source for sperm motility and

enzymes that will break down the semen

clot once it is in the female

reproductive tract okay so take a second

to make sure you understand the semen

clots during ejaculation and is then

broken down once it's inside the female

reproductive tract the last accessory

gland is the Bulbul urethral glands

these glands secrete a fluid that

contain mucus wise mucus important

it serves as a lubricant